Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters in Engineering Industry

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Brakes are devices whose function it is to slow down and to stop the automobile. They are mandatory for the safe operation of vehicles. When a vehicle is in motion, it has kinetic energy or energy derived from this motion. In order for the vehicles to slow down, this energy must be decreased. This is accomplished by transforming it into another form. In the case of brakes, this form is heat. In short, brakes transform the kinetic energy of the vehicles into heat energy, thus slowing its speed and if enough is transferred, bringing it to a stop.

Brakes have been refined and improved ever since their invention. The increases in traveling speeds as well as the growing weights of cars have made this improvement essential. The faster a vehicle goes and the heavier it is, the harder it is to stop. An effective braking system is needed to accomplish this task.

Brakes operate by converting the kinetic energy (motion) of an automobile into heat energy. How effectively this is achieved depends on the type of braking system. There are two main types of brakes that have been used in cars. These are disc brakes and drum brakes.

Disc brakes operate in a similar fashion to that of a bicycle. It involves pushing a block against a spinning wheel. This contact causes friction, which changes kinetic energy into heat energy.
Drum brakes have their blocks located in the inside of a drum like the disc in disc brakes, the drum in drum brakes are attached to the wheels. When the brake pedal is pressed the curved brake shoes are pushed outward so that they make contract with the rotating drum.

Not only are their different types of brakes, but there are various systems that operate these brakes. These include mechanical, hydraulic, and power brake system.
The Indian auto component sector is expected to grow at a healthy clip of above 20% in the coming years on the back of a strong demand from both the domestic and international markets. This has already been evident from the industry’s performance over the last two years when it crossed 20% growth rates.

Domestically, the number of vehicles manufactured in India has risen dramatically to 8.5 million units in 2004-05 from 2.4 million units in 1993-94. In the past, the industry was severely hamstrung by its over dependence on the domestic automobile sector and its swings and cyclicality.

However, this has changed quite dramatically in the recent past and the future growth is pagged largely on exports. While on one hand this takes care of the oscillating fortunes of the Indian auto sector, on the other hand, it diversifies risk, which promotes stability and ensures better growth and margins for companies.

The automobile industry was also aided by some positive, proactive policy decisions by government. In 2002, the automobile policy opened the automobile sector to 100 percent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and also removed the minimum capital investment norms for new entrants. Besides, the abolition of licensing and removal of quantitative restrictions helped the industry restructure and absorb new technology.

The market for automotive components can be divided into three categories largely based on the identity of the buyer – the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM or the vehicle manufacturer), replacement (vehicle owners buying parts for maintenance and repair) and exports (Foreign Vehicle Manufacturers and International Tier-1 Suppliers).

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